APPLICATION OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS/DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING IN HEALTH


APPLICATION OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS/DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING IN HEALTH

Graphical image processing is an important part and has made a huge impact in the medical field which has been digitalized greatly and depends mainly on computers and technology. Various fields depend entirely on digital images where scans, x-rays, and MRIs are taken then undergo the various process in analyzing the images to determine the kind of disease and also how they can come up with a cure. Most parts of the human body are so tiny and also covered and without risk, images are taken then processed and analyzed. The various field of health where digital image processing is done include:

a) NEUROIMAGING AND BRAIN MAPPING
Neuroimaging or brain mapping involves the use of images to analyze and study the structure or function of the brain or any other part of the nervous system. Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) is used to provide scans and images with good resolution which allows the structural analysis that meets all the criteria needed to study the brain. Graphical image processing has improved in the field where functioning images that allows mapping and measuring of neuronal activities directly have been improved through research. Structural MRIs has been the most widely used tool in brain mapping for the investigation of trauma and disease-related brain changes.

b) CELL AND MOLECULAR IMAGING
Molecular imaging is a field of medical imaging that provides pictures of what is happening at the molecular and cell level of a body. Diagnostic imaging procedures such as x-rays, computed tomography, and ultrasound provide anatomical pictures used by physicians to observe the functioning of the body and measure the chemical and biological processes. Molecular imaging gives a unique insight to the human body where magnetic resonance(MR) uses a magnetic field, radio waves and detailed image of the body created by the computer to give a detailed image of the body. Optical imaging is also used to analyze the cells thereby making the molecular image an important file in the medical field where even specific locations of cells are identified which enables diagnosing of diseases such as cancer, lung disorders, and bone disorders.

c) TOMOGRAPHY (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY)
Formally known as computerized axial tomography scan, makes use of a computer-processed combination of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of the scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. Computed Tomography is of importance in the field of medicine to produce images that supplement X-rays and medical ultrasonography. The common recent use is the prevention of medicine or screening diseases.

d) SIMULATION OF OPERATIONS
Involves machines that have programmed to produce real virtual for example computerized mannequin to give birth, with complications which must be interpreted and understood by the healthcare professional or team in order to deliver the baby safely. As well you can try to develop a kind of scenario whereby actors or role players will create the impression of mysterious medical symptoms that the audience will have the personality to figure out and treat out before a deadly related complication arise.

There are specialist majoring in simulation operations and are referred to as Simulation Operation Specialist who are healthcare professionals who operate all aspects of simulation steps. These specialists are involved in various responsibilities and are composed of simulation technicians, simulation coordinator and simulation AV specialist.

e) ULTRASONIC AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE SCANNERS (ULTRASONOGRAPHY)
Ultrasonic scans are used to a clear image of the eye to discover eye complication. This is done by either the B-scan method or the water bath method, whereby high-frequency ultrasounds are used to give a very high axial resolution. Ophthalmologist depends highly in his observation of the patient's eye, which involves checking the cornea, anterior chamber, lens and vitreous of the patient's eye. If the patient has a cataract of the lens or any other complication restricting the ophthalmologist visual view of the patient's eye, ultrasonography can result in imaging of the area behind the opacity.

f) RESEARCH
Medical research data and quality visualization are critical in the interpretation of data where graphical design is used in the creation of graphs that efficiently and effectively translate the key clinical messages in the data. Pattern recognition and utilization of the most powerful techniques of graphics have enabled the understanding of the diseases on how they affect the human body and with the information gathered a cure can be developed. Also understanding the patterns by which a certain disease spreads in a certain area helps in controlling the spread of the disease. Finding cure of diseases has been enhanced by the use of graphics where multiple computers run medical simulations thereby increasing the speed at which potential cures are found.

g) AUGMENTED REALITY
Augmented Reality (AR) superimposes computer-generated artifacts onto an existing view of the real world, correctly orientated with the viewing direction of the user who typically wears a suitable head-mounted display, HMD. Video cameras can be attached to the front of an otherwise normal (scene occluding) HMD and the video feeds mixed with the computer-generated data before being displayed to the user via the HMD's active display panels and optics. AR can be integrated with systems already being utilized for image-guided surgery.

In surgery, AR offers a natural extension to the image-guidance paradigm and offers great potential in enhancing reality in the operating room. This ‘X-ray vision' quality of AR is especially useful to the restricted-view realm of minimally invasive surgery. From the outside, we could augment an internal view of the patient based on preoperative or intra-operative data, presenting the surgeon with a large and information-rich view of the surgical field whilst entirely preserving the benefits of minimal invasion. Clearly, the enhanced visualization characteristic offered by AR can be beneficial to a wide range of clinical scenarios.

AR systems can also display individual ultrasound slices of a fetus onto the pregnant patient. Ultrasound data is combined with video from a head-mounted display and visualized during laparoscopic surgery and biopsy of breast lesions.

h) PICTURE ENHANCEMENTS
Nowadays 3D images create a detailed view of images of the body taken by computed tomography. These models are used to show the organs inside the body including the tiniest organs such as the cells. A 3D scanner is a device designed mainly for the so-called reverse design, industrial design is carried out based on existing objects.

i) VIRTUAL ENDOSCOPY
In video or optical endoscopy, an endoscope (made from a fiber optic tube) is inserted into the patient body through a natural or minimally invasive opening on the body. It is an invasive process and only a limited number of structures can be viewed by the camera positioned at the tip of the endoscope. Virtual Endoscopy (VEnd) is a visualization technique that provides the same diagnostic information to the clinician by creating a 3D model from a medical scan of the patient. The clinician can also record a trajectory through the organ for later sessions, and create a movie to show to other experts. With improvements currently being made in the spatial and temporal resolution of imaging modalities, and new techniques for automated path definitions and improved tools for user orientation during the virtual endoscopy, and improved reconstruction speeds allowing real-time fly through at high resolution, VEnd will undoubtedly play an increasing role in the future of whole-body imaging.
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