Vaginal Infections: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

What you need to know about fungal and bacterial vaginal infections

Vaginal infections can be uncomfortable and disruptive to a person's daily life. They can cause symptoms such as itching, burning, abnormal discharge, and discomfort during sexual intercourse. Understanding the different types of vaginal infections, their causes, symptoms, and treatment options is essential for effective management and relief. In this comprehensive guide, we will explore the most common types of vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis (yeast infection), and trichomoniasis. We will also discuss the diagnostic methods and various treatment options available.

Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common type of vaginal infection. It occurs due to an overgrowth of bacteria that are normally present in the vagina. While about half of the individuals with BV may not experience any symptoms, others may notice a thin grey or white vaginal discharge with a fishy odor. BV is not considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but sexual activity, especially with a new partner, can increase the risk of developing BV. Other risk factors include the use of vaginal hygiene products, such as douches and deodorants, the presence of an intrauterine device (IUD), and smoking.

Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)

Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans, which is normally present in small amounts in the vagina. This type of infection can occur when there is an imbalance in the vaginal ecosystem, allowing the yeast to multiply rapidly. Symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, burning, redness of the vulva, and changes in vaginal discharge. Unlike BV, a yeast infection is not considered an STI. Factors that can increase the risk of developing a yeast infection include taking antibiotics, hormonal changes, weakened immune system, and uncontrolled diabetes.


Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is more common in women than men and can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Symptoms of trichomoniasis include a frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge, vaginal or vulvar irritation, itching, and discomfort during urination or sexual intercourse. It is important to note that not all individuals with trichomoniasis will experience symptoms. If left untreated, trichomoniasis can increase the risk of acquiring or transmitting other sexually transmitted infections.

Diagnosing Vaginal Infections

Proper diagnosis is essential for effective treatment of vaginal infections. When experiencing symptoms, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation. A healthcare provider will typically begin by taking a detailed medical history, including information about previous vaginal infections, sexual activity, and symptoms. They may also perform a pelvic exam to visually inspect the vagina and cervix for any signs of infection. In some cases, a sample of vaginal discharge may be collected and examined under a microscope to identify the specific cause of the infection, such as the presence of clue cells (indicative of BV) or yeast cells (indicative of a yeast infection).

Treatment Options

The treatment of vaginal infections depends on the specific type of infection diagnosed. Here are the common treatment options for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis:

Bacterial Vaginosis Treatment

The primary goal of BV treatment is to restore the balance of bacteria in the vagina. Antibiotics, such as metronidazole or clindamycin, are commonly prescribed to treat BV. These medications can be taken orally or applied topically in the form of gels or creams. It is important to complete the full course of antibiotics, even if symptoms improve, to ensure the infection is fully eradicated. Sexual partners do not require treatment unless they also have symptoms.

Candidiasis Treatment

Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications. Over-the-counter antifungal creams, ointments, or suppositories containing clotrimazole, miconazole, or tioconazole are available for mild to moderate infections. These medications are inserted directly into the vagina. For more severe or recurrent infections, a healthcare provider may prescribe oral antifungal medications, such as fluconazole. It is important to follow the instructions provided and complete the full course of treatment to prevent the infection from recurring.

Trichomoniasis Treatment

Trichomoniasis is usually treated with the prescription medication metronidazole or tinidazole, which are taken orally. It is important to abstain from sexual activity during treatment to avoid transmitting the infection to a partner. Sexual partners should also be treated simultaneously to prevent reinfection. To ensure successful treatment, it is important to complete the full course of medication, even if symptoms improve.

Preventive Measures

Prevention plays a crucial role in reducing the risk of vaginal infections. Here are some preventive measures that can help maintain vaginal health:

  • Practice safe sex by using condoms consistently and correctly.
  • Avoid douching, as it can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.
  • Maintain good hygiene by gently washing the external genital area with mild soap and water.
  • Avoid using scented products, such as soaps, bubble baths, and feminine hygiene sprays, as they can irritate the vaginal area.
  • Wear breathable cotton underwear and avoid tight-fitting clothing that can trap moisture.
  • Take probiotics or consume yogurt with live cultures, as they can help restore the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina.

When to Seek Medical Attention

While some mild vaginal infections may resolve on their own or with over-the-counter treatments, it is important to seek medical attention in the following situations:

  • Persistent or recurrent symptoms despite treatment.
  • Severe symptoms, such as intense itching, swelling, or pain.
  • Presence of abnormal vaginal bleeding or sores.
  • Suspected or confirmed exposure to a sexually transmitted infection.


Vaginal infections can cause discomfort and disrupt daily life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, relief is possible. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis are the most common types of vaginal infections. It is important to seek medical attention for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Preventive measures can help reduce the risk of developing vaginal infections. If symptoms persist or worsen, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for vaginal infections, individuals can take control of their vaginal health and well-being.

Geoffrey Nevine — IT Services and IT Consulting

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